The Wheel of Development figure below has shown two important actors—duty-bearers and rights-holders that have the role and responsibilities to make the development wheel moving forward. The figure also shows how PNKS is involved in supporting the wheel moving to a sustainable development. PNKS has five boundary partners two of which are under the duty-bearers (Village Leaders and Commune Councils) and three are under the rights-holders (Village Development Association, Commune Development Association and School Steering Committee). PNKS works with the rights-holders to ensure their need is heard and responded to and their rights are protected. PNKS also works with duty-bearers to ensure they have adequate capacity to address the needs and protect the rights of the rights-holders.




Below figure has three spheres—sphere of control, sphere of boundary partners and sphere of concerns.

- Sphere of Control is defining our project, inputs, activities that we could control

- Sphere of Boundary Partners determines the partners within our sphere of influence for behaviour change and outcome level.

- Sphere of concerns determines our impacts and our vision



VDA sees itself as a CSO that is critical to its own community’s development, with a role to assist individuals, support community groups and identify and mobilize action around whole community problems. Their attitudes include focus on poor, justice inclusion, equity, gender equity and environmental sustainability.  They see working co-operatively with larger structures, advocacy or even grassroots protest as ways they might work.

VDA has a relationship of trust and open communication with commune council, village development association and school steering committee and share participatory community-driven development as a common vision. They have ideas and action sharing relationships with other villages and their VDAs. VDAs relate openly and sensitively and in a service-oriented way to their own communities and its members. The VDA members trust and encourage each other. The VDA relationship with PNKS is one of partnership.

VDAs organize skill and capacity-building around important topics for their community members and actively seek out needy and excluded members of their communities to include them. They also organize their communities to define and find solutions to community level problems and organize activities within and outside the community to solve these problems. They actively participate in their community problem-solving by using available local resources. The VDA practices good governance itself with a constitution, open dissemination of minutes, openness to community ideas etc.


VL understands itself as a government structure whose responsibility is to SERVE THE PEOPLE.   They see their role as primarily to people not to political parties or other structures. They see the best way to do that is to work with government structures ‘above’ them as well as civil society organizations and NGOs, especially seeing their role to facilitate work and communication between the VDA and CC.

VL has a close and trusting working relationship with the VDA of its village and with PNKS.

The VL relates directly to people in the village and through the VDA, meets regularly with VDA. They also relate to the CDA directly and as representatives of the people rather than servants of the government or political party.

VL represent legitimate concerns and requests to other government organizations; they are open and transparent regarding their meetings and decisions. Most importantly they make plans with the VDA and share resources and capacities as they try to implement the plan. To nurture good relationship with all people in the village, VL acts and serves people in unbiased and transparent ways. They put people before political parties.


CDAs see themselves as the coordinating and advocacy arm of a network of VDAs. Their vision of development is responsive civil society organizations in close co-operation with government.  They are motivated by focusing on the poor, an understanding of natural and legal justice and rights and advocacy.

CDAs have a close working relationship with VDAs. They also relate directly and openly with VDC, CC and other government structures with confidence and are able to advocate.  They have an open partnership with PNKS.

CDAs have open transparent governance structures and practical skills in organizational work. They meet regularly with their VDAs and support them. They also meet with and make plans with CC and other government structures. They also take village issues to other government and non-government organizations.

CDAs work in a system for community positive change.  CDA work well together with VDA and other partners including the local government for collective voice and representation. They have a democratic and transparent leadership, with governance that respects human rights to push a pro-poor and sustainable development.



CC has a good connection to the people. They serve the people well without political discrimination. They show love and respect toward the poor.

CC is a political body, directly elected by the people, but understand that as a responsibility to serve and represent people they have an attitude of openness and responsiveness to what is happening in villages and a responsibility to connect people to their government. There is no discrimination or nepotism in the way they think or operate.

There is an open and trusting relationship between the CDA and the CC. CDA is able to take development concerns to the CC and has confidence that these will be fairly considered.  CC is also open to advice and suggestions from CSOs and NGOs. CC relates to higher government structures positively and confidently represents people and organizations below them.



SSC work and support the improvement of education in the school they are working in. They have ownership and responsibilities for their own school and education development by connecting to concerned bodies.  

SSC see themselves as critically important because their responsibility is the education of a village’s most important members- its children. Their attitude is that education is a right and children should have access to free good quality education. They see their primary responsibility to children and their families to make sure they get good education.  They clearly see that paying teachers for exam passes is corruption.

SSCs have strong relationships amongst themselves- encouraging and supporting each other. They also have an open and non-threatening relationship with the school they are responsible for. This relationship has a high degree of trust. SSCs have a supportive relationship with VDAs, are able to discuss needs and make strategies together.  The SSC also relates with confidence to government bodies- VL, CC, District Council and education departments. They feel they are able to represent the children’s needs to those bodies.  There is a relationship of trust between SSC and PNKS where they can discuss their needs and request help with what they need. SSCs are trusted and respected by the people in the villages in which they work.  There is a supportive and co-operative relationship between SSCs in an area so that they can share ideas and advocate together when necessary. SSCs relate directly as partners with NGOs like PNKS.

SSC meets regularly with a clear and transparent governance (e.g. agendas, minutes etc.). They work closely with schools in an encouraging and supportive manner. They are able to independently arrange and talk confidently to relevant authorities when necessary to improve education provided by their school.  The SSCs of an area meet together regularly (say every 3 months) to discuss problems and solutions to education at a wider level. They work closely with VDAs as the key development organization of a village.